[order] Passeriformes | [family] Fringillidae | [latin] Pyrrhula pyrrhula | [UK] Bullfinch | [FR] Bouvreuil pivoine | [DE] Gimpel | [ES] Camachuelo Común | [IT] Ciuffolotto comune eurasiatico | [NL] Goudvink

Goudvink determination

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Eurasian Bullfinch is a bulky bull-headed bird. Male has grey mantle. Rump is white, contrasting with blackish tail. Wings are blackish with only one pale wing bar. Underparts are pink-red, with white vent. Head has black crown, nape, lores and chin. Cheeks and throat are pink-red. Eyes are black. Crown is bluish-black with glossy feathers. Short, conical low-based bill is blackish. Legs and feet ate pinkish-brown. Female has grey-brown underparts and mantle, this one slightly darker than underparts. Juvenile resembles adult female, but it lacks black on crown and around the bill. It has buff-brown wing bar.

European Bullfinch lives in woodlands, coniferous and deciduous, with dense undergrowth. It is also found in orchards, parks and gardens.

Pyrrhula pyrrhula is a widespread breeder across much of Europe, which accounts for less than half of its global breeding range. Its European breeding population is very large (>7,300,000 pairs), and was stable between 1970-1990. Although there were declines in a few countries-notably France-during 1990-2000, the key population in Russia was stable, and trends were stable or increasing across most of Europe.

Bullfinches feed primarily on buds and seeds. The buds from fruit trees, especially woodland trees, are eaten exclusively in the spring. A bullfinch feeds on the buds by landing on the tip of a branch and slowly moving towards the trunk, stripping the bud as it goes. However, it is only when supplies of seeds remaining from the previous summer and autumn diminish that bullfinches attack buds. In deciduous woods, bullfinches demonstrate a preference for the seeds of dock, nettles, privet, bramble, birch and ash. These seeds are the main food supply until buds begin to develop.

This species has a large range, with an estimated global Extent of Occurrence of 10,000,000 km². It has a large global population, including an estimated 15,000,000-28,000,000 individuals in Europe (BirdLife International in prep.). Global population trends have not been quantified, but the species is not believed to approach the thresholds for the population decline criterion of the IUCN Red List (i.e. declining more than 30% in ten years or three generations). For these reasons, the species is evaluated as Least Concern. [conservation status from birdlife.org]

European Bullfinch's nest is built on a tree branch, or in a bush or thicket. Nest is located at about 4 to 7 feet above the ground. It is a loose structure built by female. It is made with moss, twigs and lichens, and lined with hair, moss and roots. Female lays 4 to 6 pale blue eggs, mottled with red-brown. Incubation lasts about 12 to 14 days, by female helped and fed by male. Chicks are fed with a mixture of insects and seeds, brought at nest by the male. Later, both parents collect food for the young. Young fledge at about 16 to 18 days. This species produces two or three broods per season, from early May to mid-July.

Sedentary to migratory; probably most populations partially migratory. Winters chiefly within breeding range, those breeding at high levels tending to make altitudinal movements. Most migrants move short or medium distances, but some (apparently chiefly from Russia) move longer distances; in northern and central Europe, no evidence that northern populations move further than southern ones. North European birds move within wider compass than central European birds. Also eruptive migrant; numbers migrating show marked annual fluctuations; no link with particular food source established. Autumn migration begins late, and is fairly brief, mostly October-November; spring migration February-April.