[order] Charadriiformes | [family] Scolopacidae | [latin] Calidris ferruginea | [UK] Curlew Sandpiper | [FR] Bécasseau cocorli | [DE] Sichelstrandläufer | [ES] Correlimos Zarapitín | [IT] Pivonello comune | [NL] Krombekstrandloper

Krombekstrandloper determination

copyright: youtube

Medium size calidris with longish neck and legs and long, decurved bill. Head, neck and all underparts rusty rufous to deep chestnut-red, with dark streaks on crown. Mantle and scapulars dark brown with chestnut and whitish fringes. Wing coverts greyer. Female normally has longer bill. somewhat paler, with greater tendency to have white barring on underparts. Non-breeding adult plain grey above, white below. contrasting white supercilium. Sides of breast washed grey.

Lowlands of Arctic, along coast and on islands in Arctic Ocean, on open tundra with marshy depressions and pools. In winter, chiefly on coast, on muddy or sandy surface of tidal flats, coastal lagoons, estuaries and salt marshes. Frequently inland, at muddy edges of large rivers, lakes, marshes, salt-pans and flooded areas.

Calidris ferruginea breeds in a narrow latitudinal range in the central Siberian Arctic, and winters mainly in western and sub-Saharan Africa. Although a tiny proportion of its global population occasionally winters in Iberia, the species is primarily a passage visitor to Europe. Consequently, its status in Europe is Not Evaluated.

Outside breeding season, mainly polychaete worms, molluscs, crustaceans, and sometimes insects. Picks prey from mud or sand surface or probes in mud regularly wading in shallow water. Gregarious outside breeding season, in flocks of up to several thousand. Diurnal and nocurnal.

This species has a large range, with an estimated global Extent of Occurrence of 100,000-1,000,000 km². It has a large global population estimated to be 1,400,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2002). Global population trends have not been quantified, but the species is not believed to approach the thresholds for the population decline criterion of the IUCN Red List (i.e. declining more than 30% in ten years or three generations). For these reasons, the species is evaluated as Least Concern. [conservation status from birdlife.org]

Egg laying in June-July. Nestis built on margins of marshes and pools, on slopes of hummocky tundra or dry patches in polygonum tundra. 3-8 eggs are laid, incubation 20 days, by female only. Breeding success highly dependent on lemming abundance, with considerable predation by Arctic foxes during low lemmings years, which occur once every 4 years.

Migratory. In W Palearctic three major routes: to White Sea, down W European coasts to W Africa; across E Europe via Black Sea and Tunisia to W Africa, following N African coast or flying via Mali; and via Black and Caspian Seas and across Middle East and Rift Valley lakes to E & S Africa. Route through W Europe little used during N migration; instead many fly via Tunisia and Sivash (N Crimea); birds passing S through Sivash winter in E, C & S Africa and probably migrate N via Caspian Sea. Other routes are across Siberia to India, where some continue through SE Asia to Australia, but many winter in S India and Sri Lanka; also overland to E Asia and via Chinese coast to Australia, a route used more on N migration. Migrates long distances non-stop. Males show high degree of site faithfulness. During autumn migration adults precede juveniles and adult males depart early Jul, 3-4 weeks before females; more males than females migrate farther S. On S migration, crosses Europe in Jul, reaching Africa from mid-Jul in N and mainly Sept in S; arrives Australia late Aug to early Sept; juveniles follow 4-6 weeks later. N migration late Apr to May; arrives on breeding grounds from early Jun. Many 1 st-year birds remain on wintering grounds while other non-breeding birds apparently remain just S of breeding grounds, in C Siberia.