[order] Passeriformes | [family] Parulidae | [latin] Wilsonia citrina | [UK] Hooded Warbler | [FR] Paruline à capuchon | [DE] Kapuzen-Waldsänger | [ES] Chipe Careto | [IT] Parula dal cappuccio | [NL] Monnikszanger

Monnikszanger determination

copyright: Bill Wayman

Close in size to Blackpoll Warbler but with proportionately slightly shorter wings and noticeably longer tail; averages 10% larger than Yellow Warbler. Quite large, lengthy, Nearctic wood warbler fond of moist woodland. Bright olive to greenish-brown above and yellow below; male has black hood around yellow face. Often spreads tail to show white panels on outer feathers.

Breeds in temperate and subtropical zones of eastern Nearctic, mainly in lowland woods or scrub, living in dense lower layers of vegetation, but not often seen on ground. Generally favours moist mature woodland.

Breeds in North America from south-east Nebraska and central Iowa east to Rhode Island, south to south-east Texas, north coast of Gulf of Mexico, and northern Florida. Winters from north-east Mexico and Yucatán south to Costa Rica and Panama. Accidental. Britain: 1st-year female, Isles of Scilly, 20-23 September 1970

Wilsonia citrina feeds primarily on small insects, spiders and other arthropods, either catching them while in flight or picking them off of forest vegetation.

This species has a large range, with an estimated global Extent of Occurrence of 2,000,000 km². It has a large global population estimated to be 4,000,000 individuals (Rich et al. 2003). Global population trends have not been quantified, but the species is not believed to approach the thresholds for the population decline criterion of the IUCN Red List (i.e. declining more than 30% in ten years or three generations). For these reasons, the species is evaluated as Least Concern. [conservation status from birdlife.org]

Both male and female W. citrina sing during the process of attracting a mate. While birds will form pairs for mating purposes, it is frequently found that a mother's eggs have been fertilized by a neighboring male.
The female constructs a nest in the underbrush of a low lying area. The nest is constructed of bark and plant material, with an outer layer of dead leaves. Three to five eggs are laid, then normally incubated for about twelve days before hatching. After hatching, the chicks will fledge in about eight or nine days and continue their growth into adult birds. Juvenile birds will be capable of reproduction the next breeding season.

Short-distance migrant, with breeding and winter ranges separated by only 600-700 km in west (eastern Texas to northern Mexico). Winters from north-east Mexico south to Panama, with small numbers in Caribbean. Movement is across western Gulf of Mexico to eastern and southern Mexico, and only a few appear in peninsular Florida and Bahamas. Early migrants often overshoot or drift offshore, and in many years small numbers appear on islands around Nova Scotia, 600 km or more north-east and downwind from breeding range; many such in April or September.