[order] Charadriiformes | [family] Scolopacidae | [latin] Lymnocryptes minimus | [UK] Jack Snipe | [FR] Bécassine sourde | [DE] Zwergschnepfe | [ES] Agachadiza Chica | [IT] Frullino | [NL] Bokje

Bokje determination

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Smallest snipe. large head, relatively short bill. Narrow wings with white trailing edge. Differs from all other snipes by wedge shaped tail, which lacks white, also lacks central stripe on crown and has purple and green gloss on black upperparts. Sexes alike, juvenile very similar to adult, but has white undertail coverts with smaller and paler brown stripes.

Breeds in open marshes, bogs and floodplaens, in forest tundra and northern taiga. In winter, brackish and freshwater habitats, often in moist and waterlogged mudflats with tussocks of vegetation. During cold spells often along margins of rivers, streams and inland spring fedmeadows.

Lymnocryptes minimus breeds in Fennoscandia and north-eastern Europe, which accounts for less than a half of its global breeding range. Its European breeding population is relatively small (<70,000 pairs), but was stable between 1970-1990. Although trends were stable in most countries during 1990-2000, the sizeable population in Russia declined, and the species underwent a moderate decline (>10%) overall. Consequently, it is provisionally evaluated as Declining.
This snipe is breeding in boreal regions of north-eastern Europe and Siberia. The birds of Europe and western Siberia are wintering in western and south-western Europe and in north-western Africa. This population is estimated at 130000 breeding pairs. It has undergone important fluctuations, and its long-term trends are unknown

Insects, annelids, small freshwater and terrestrial gastropods and sometimes seeds. Moves body rhythmically up and down when probing in mud, also pecks prey items from surface. Chiefly nocturnal or crepuscular. Usually feeds singly, sometimes in groups of up to 6 birds.

This species has a large range, with an estimated global Extent of Occurrence of 1,000,000-10,000,000 km². It has a large global population estimated to be 1,000,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2002). Global population trends have not been quantified, but the species is not believed to approach the thresholds for the population decline criterion of the IUCN Red List (i.e. declining more than 30% in ten years or three generations). For these reasons, the species is evaluated as Least Concern. [conservation status from birdlife.org]

Breeding from May to September. Monogamous, male performs switchback display flight, typically at dawn and dusk, but sometimes throughout day. Nest often on floating bogs, but sometimes on drier ground among bushes, lined with pieces or grass or leaves. 4 eggs, possibly double brooded, incubation 21-24 days. Chick mahogany red, slightly paler below, with black and white bands on face and black areas with small white down tips on crown, nape, wing pads and upperparts. Brood care apparently only by female.

Migratory. Winters mainly western and southern Europe, North Africa, northern Afrotropics, Turkey, northern Middle East, Iran, Afghanistan, and from Indian subcontinent to Vietnam. Always thinly distributed; believed largest numbers wintering west Palearctic occur in western maritime countries¾from Britain and Ireland to Iberia and Maghreb. Occasional records from North Sea countries in July and early August may include summering non-breeders, since autumn passage does not normally begin until second half of August. Main movements through Europe south of Baltic occur mid-September to mid-November, and birds appear in Nigeria and East Africa during latter month. Return passage begins February in southern wintering areas, and early birds may reach southern Fenno-Scandia in March; main movement, however, in April, with breeding grounds reoccupied mid-April to mid-May, averaging later in east. Migratory. Winters mainly western and southern Europe, North Africa, northern Afrotropics, Turkey, northern Middle East, Iran, Afghanistan, and from Indian subcontinent to Vietnam. Always thinly distributed; believed largest numbers wintering west Palearctic occur in western maritime countries¾from Britain and Ireland to Iberia and Maghreb. Occasional records from North Sea countries in July and early August may include summering non-breeders, since autumn passage does not normally begin until second half of August. Main movements through Europe south of Baltic occur mid-September to mid-November, and birds appear in Nigeria and East Africa during latter month. Return passage begins February in southern wintering areas, and early birds may reach southern Fenno-Scandia in March; main movement, however, in April, with breeding grounds reoccupied mid-April to mid-May, averaging later in east.