[order] Passeriformes | [family] Corvidae | [latin] Corvus monedula | [UK] Jackdaw | [FR] Choucas des tours | [DE] Dohle | [ES] Grajilla Común | [IT] Taccola | [NL] Kauw

Kauw determination

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A small black crow with a grey neck and pale eyes. Upper parts black with a blue gloss, nape and ear coverts grey , iris pale blue , sexes alike. It is sociable and usually seen in pairs or larger groups. It is quite and acrobatic flier and flocks will often chase and tumble together in flight. On the ground it both walks and hops.

Breeds across middle and upper middle latitudes of west Palearctic, in boreal, temperate, steppe, and Mediterranean lowlands, continental and oceanic. Tolerates wide ranges of precipitation and settled or unsettled weather, but avoids extremes of heat, ice, and snow. Needs sheltered nesting places, apparently adapting from main reliance on hollow or shady trees to rock crevices, holes in buildings of various kinds, and even burrows of rabbit.

Corvus monedula is a widespread breeder across most of Europe, which constitutes >50% of its global range. Its European breeding population is very large (>5,200,000 pairs), and was stable between 1970-1990. Although the species declined in several countries during 1990-2000-notably Turkey and France-the Russian population was stable, and other key populations (such as those in Belarus, Romania and the United Kingdom) were also stable or increasing. The species probably remained stable overall.
several subspecies are recognized: C. m. monedula Scandinavia, S Finland, Denmark, E Germany and Poland, E to Czechoslovakia, Austria, Hungary, N-W Rumania including Carpathian mountains, and N Yugoslavia. C. m. sppermologus W Europe from Netherlands, W Germany, W Switzerland, Italy, and extreme N-W Yugoslavia westwards, from Britain S to Iberia, also, Morocco. C. m. soemmerringii E Europe and W Asia, from S-W and C Yugoslavia and S and E Rumania southwards, and from S-E Finland and former USSR eastwards, E to Kashmir and Mongolia. C. m. cirtensis N-E Algeria and Tunisia.

Invertebrates, fruits, seeds, carrion, and scraps. Sometimes small vertebrates of birds' eggs. Food of nestlings predominantly invertebrates. Generally feeds in pairs or small flocks, almost wholly on ground, though will forage seasonally in tree-tops for defoliating caterpillars, beetles, or even acorns, though rarely seen on woodland floor.

This species has a large range, with an estimated global Extent of Occurrence of 1,000,000-10,000,000 km². It has a large global population, including an estimated 10,000,000-29,000,000 individuals in Europe (BirdLife International in prep.). Global population trends have not been quantified, but there is evidence of a population increase (Madge and Burn 1993), and so the species is not believed to approach the thresholds for the population decline criterion of the IUCN Red List (i.e. declining more than 30% in ten years or three generations). For these reasons, the species is evaluated as Least Concern. [conservation status from birdlife.org]

Early Apr to mid May in Britain and Ireland, end of Apr to end of May in whit a little variation in Europe. Nest site, hole or caviy in tree, rock-face, and man-made structure. Very often in old tree-hole of Black Woodpecker. Nest, very variable in size and structure depending on nature of cavity, chimney or hollow tree sticks thrown in hole until they lodge, and nests often re-used, so foundation can be huge or suspended just below cavity entrance. 4-6 eggs, sub-elliptical, smooth and glossy. Pale light blue to greenish-blue with very variable specks and blotches of blackish-brown to light olive, pale grey, or greyish-violet, becoming larger towards broad end. Incubation 17-18 days, by female only.

Breeds across middle and upper middle latitudes of west Palearctic, in boreal, temperate, steppe, and Mediterranean lowlands, continental and oceanic. Tolerates wide ranges of precipitation and settled or unsettled weather, but avoids extremes of heat, ice, and snow. Needs sheltered nesting places, apparently adapting from main reliance on hollow or shady trees to rock crevices, holes in buildings of various kinds, and even burrows of rabbit.