[order] Charadriiformes | [family] Charadriidae | [latin] Charadrius dubius | [UK] Little Ringed Plover | [FR] Pluvier petit-gravelot | [DE] Flußregenpfeifer | [ES] Chorlitejo Chico | [IT] Corriere piccolo | [NL] Kleine Plevier

Kleine Plevier determination

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Smaller and less bulky than C. hiaticula , also differs in having narrow white line behind black frontal bar, and in general shead pattern, eye-ring bright yellow. Female has brown tinge to black parts and slightly narrowed eye-ring. Races differ in size and bill coloration, in curonicus, non-breeding adult has reduced brownish breast band, and black on head brownish, jerdone, like nominate, lacks markedly distinct non-breeding plumage.

Mainly lowlands, rarely coastal. On bare or sparsely vegetated flats of sand, shingle or silt. Avoids rough terrain and tall or dense vegetation. Often in vicinity of standing or slow flowing fresh water, sometimes saline inland pools and flats, or brackish lagoons and estuaries. Also found in artificial, often only temporarily suitable, habitats, such as gravel pits, sewage works and industrial wastelands.

Charadrius dubius is a widespread summer visitor to much of Europe, which accounts for less than half of its global breeding range. Its European breeding population is large (>110,000 pairs), and increased between 1970-1990. Although there were declines in a number of countries-most notably Turkey - during 1990-2000, key populations in countries such as Russia, Belarus and Ukraine were stable, and the species probably declined only slightly overall.

Insects, including beetles, flies, ants, mayfly and dragonfly larvae and crickets, spiders, shrimps and other invertabrates. Sometimes uses foot-trembling. Feeds on dry or moist surface, and occasionally in shallow water.

This species has a large range, with an estimated global Extent of Occurrence of 10,000,000 km². It has a large global population, including an estimated 210,000-470,000 individuals in Europe (BirdLife International in prep.). Global population trends have not been quantified, but the species is not believed to approach the thresholds for the population decline criterion of the IUCN Red List (i.e. declining more than 30% in ten years or three generations). For these reasons, the species is evaluated as Least Concern. [conservation status from birdlife.org]

April-June in Europe, March-May in Notrh Africa, March-May in South India. Nominate race breeds February-May. Monogamous for at least one brood, occasionally for several years, sometimes 3rd bird joins during breeding, but family relation of these "helpers" unknown. Solitary or in losse neighbourhood groups. Low degree of natal philopatry, but high of site fidelity, usually breeding within few km of previous year's site. Territorial and highly aggressive, usually feeding outside territory. Nest is shallow scrape, unlined or lined with some vegetation and stones, on bare ground or among low vegetation, in vicinity of water. 4 eggs, incubation 22-28 days, by both parents. Chick mottled cinnamon orange, grey and dusky, with black band above whitish forehead, and underparts white with dark patches on sides of breast.

Race curonicus migratory, but possibly resident in South breeding areas; West European population migrates across Sahara to tropics. Leaves breading areas June to early July, and migrates late July to early September, reaching tropical Africa late August to September. Returns from late February, reaching North West Europe from mid-March, peaking April to early May, and a month later in North East; along River Yenisey, return migration peaks late may. Siberian and other Asian populations migrate to South East Asia and India, where they mix with resident race jerdoni; across Japan only on northward migration. Often migrates singly or in small flock often of not more than 10 birds. Nominate race resident and locally nomadic in Guinea. Race jerdoni resident, but moves about locally in response to water conditions. Race curonicus recently recorded regularly in small numbers in Australia.