[order] Charadriiformes | [family] Charadriidae | [latin] Pluvialis fulva | [UK] Pacific Golden Plover | [FR] Pluvier fauve | [DE] Pazifischer Goldregenpfeifer | [ES] Chorlito Dorado Siberiano | [IT] Piviere dorato del Pacifico | [NL] Aziatische Goudplevier

Aziatische Goudplevier determination

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Black underparts with narrow white flanking line, vent tends to be mostly white with scattering of black. Very similar to Eurasian and American Golden Plover, but smaller, has longer legs and is yellower than apricaria, with brownish grey underwing, and wings clearly longer than tail. Female somewhat less black than male. Non-breeding adult has yellowish buff on breast, grading to whitish on belly and vent.

Breeds in drier parts of typical tundra, but not on coastline, on shrub tundra, rarely forest tundra, and on stony well drained upland, with moss and lichens. Winters in coastal areas, in fields sith short grass, prairies, ploughed land, salt-marshes, beaches and open sandflats and mudflats. Young birds occur more frequently on mud by inland waters and tidal flats.

There is no accurate population estimate of the total world population of this species. In 1993, a rough estimate of 90,000 individuals was obtained for Pacific Golden-Plovers in the East Asian-Australasian flyway, based on limited count data and extrapolation. The 2001 US Shorebird Conservation Plan roughly estimates a population of 16,000 individuals based on broad-scale surveys. Accounts of these plovers blanketing the sky suggest that it may have once numbered in the millions. This species has a history of exploitation, but impacts of hunting have been left largely unrecorded. It was hunted in the Hawaiian Islands until 1941 when bag limits of 15/day were often exceeded and hunters began noticing population declines. Subsequent to its protection, the Hawaiian Islands population has rebounded, but no comparative data exists to judge whether it has reached pre-exploitation levels. Hunting is illegal in Australia and New Zealand. Shorebirds are very extensively exploited in east Asia. Total annual losses to human predation in this region is unknown, but about 2,000 birds are killed per year in west Java alone.
The winter range of this species is spread out over about half of the world's circumference. It occupies upland and coastal habitats ranging from Hawaii to Japan, from the South Pacific through southern Asia and the Middle East to northeast Africa. It also winters in specific areas of coastal California, and probably in Baja California, the Revillagigedo and Galapagos Islands, and Chile as well.
The vast breeding range of this species in arctic Asia needs further study - much of the terrain is extremely remote. Available information shows that the eastern extent of its breeding range (in western Alaska) is shared with the American Golden-Plover. It is found breeding from Barrow to the tip of the Alaska Peninsula, and throughout much of the Bering Sea region.
Migratory, wintering across large area from parts of north-east Africa, Indian subcontinent, south-east Asia, Pacific islands to New Zealand, and some in southern California. Leaves breeding grounds late July and early August, reaching Africa August and early September (probably via Arabian peninsula), Hawaii August and New Zealand October. Departs winter quarters March to early May, reaching tundra in first half of June. Probably passes regularly through extreme north-east European Russia.

Normally insects, molluscs, worms, crustaceans and spiders, but berries particularly important on tundra occasionally seeds and leaves. Feeds in typical plover style, also gleans and probes in mud, sand and pastures. Feeds alone or in flocks of 100 birds or more.

This species has a large range, with an estimated global Extent of Occurrence of 100,000-1,000,000 kmē. It has a large global population estimated to be 170,000-220,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2002). Global population trends have not been quantified, but the species is not believed to approach the thresholds for the population decline criterion of the IUCN Red List (i.e. declining more than 30% in ten years or three generations). For these reasons, the species is evaluated as Least Concern. [conservation status from birdlife.org]

Breeding starts in June. Monogamous. High degree of site fidelity, especially so for males. Often breeding within 100 m of nest site of previous year, and sometimes n same nest cup. Nest on dry spots, on hummock, lichen, or moss tundra, nest is shallow scrape, lined with lichens. clutch 4 eggs, incubation 26 days by both sexes. Chick has black and bright yellow upperparts and white underparts. After hatching, chicks and parents move to moist shrubby or grassy tundra or patches with green moss. Chick tended by both parents.

Migratory, wintering across large area from parts of north-east Africa, Indian subcontinent, south-east Asia, Pacific islands to New Zealand, and some in southern California. Leaves breeding grounds late July and early August, reaching Africa August and early September (probably via Arabian peninsula), Hawaii August and New Zealand October. Departs winter quarters March to early May, reaching tundra in first half of June. Probably passes regularly through extreme north-east European Russia.