[order] Charadriiformes | [family] Scolopacidae | [latin] Phalaropus lobatus | [UK] Red-Necked Phalarope | [FR] Phalarope bec étroit | [DE] Odinshühnchen | [ES] Falaropo Picofino | [IT] Falaropo becco sottile | [NL] Grauwe Franjepoot

Grauwe Franjepoot determination

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Smallest Phalaropus, with needle like bill and slender neck, toes lobed. Reversed sexual dimorphism. Female has slate grey head, neck and sides of breast with bright orange red horseshoe collar and white throat. Golden buff fringes on upperparts form lines on sides of mantle. Male much duller, with browner head, neck and upperparts. White above eye often spreads out to form narrow supercilium. Non-breeding adult has dull blue grey upperparts with white fringes. Head mainly white with black patch through and behind eye. Underparts white with faint streaks on lower flanks.

Arctic. Tundra, forst tundra and Scandinavian alpine tundra, near lakes and pools with marshy margins, often overgrown with grass, sedges and moss. During migration, uses inland saline lakes. Winters at sea, in upwelling zones and ocean slicks with high availability of plankton.

Phalaropus lobatus is a widespread summer visitor to northernmost Europe, which accounts for less than a quarter of its global breeding range. Its European breeding population is relatively large (>85,000 pairs), and was stable between 1970-1990. Although the species declined in Iceland and Finland during 1990-2000, it remained stable across much of its European range (its trend in Greenland and Sweden was unknown), and probably declined only slightly overall.
This wader inhabits the arctic and sub-arctic tundra in Eurasia and North America. The only populations of the European Union (12 Member States) are those of Scotland and Ireland. They amount currently to about 20 breeding pairs, and are constantly declining since the beginning of the twentieth century

Chiefly insects, beetles, caddisflies, ants and bugs, also other small invertebrates, including snails, crustaceans and annelid worms and some seeds. Forages by swimming, wading and walking. Pecks at prey at water surface, from vegetation or mud, rapidly lunges at prey just below water surface, upends, seizes flying insects, and often spins around in water. At sea usually near whales and shoals of fish, where profits from high local plankton densities, and at floating seaweed.

This species has a large range, with an estimated global Extent of Occurrence of 1,000,000-10,000,000 km². It has a large global population estimated to be 3,500,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2002). Global population trends have not been quantified, but the species is not believed to approach the thresholds for the population decline criterion of the IUCN Red List (i.e. declining more than 30% in ten years or three generations). For these reasons, the species is evaluated as Least Concern. [conservation status from birdlife.org]

Egg laying in June. pairs bond Monogamous, sometimes polyandrous. when males are in excess numbers, sex roles reversed. Breeds Solitary or loosely colonial where habitat is restricted. No territorial behavior and low degree of site fidelity and natal philopatry (where next generatin breeds on same grounds parents). Nest is built on bare ground or among sparse vegetation, close to water lined with leaves and stems. 3-4 eggs are laid, usually single brood, but in case of polyandry double brooded. Incubation lasts 17-21 days, by male only. Chick cinnamon buff to whitish with black bands, crown and eyestripe black and three black bands down back, underparts white, greyish and buff. Chicks tended by male only, female depart soon after hatching.

Migratory. Intermediate in character between Wilson‘s Phalarope and Grey Phalarope, wintering pelagically but migrating extensively overland. Main winter concentrations off western South America, in Arabian Sea, and among East Indies; no regular wintering areas yet known in Atlantic Ocean; winter ranges of North Atlantic populations (Greenland, Iceland, Faeroes, Scotland) still problematical. Fenno-Scandian birds migrate south-east through Gulf of Bothnia and Gulf of Finland, and across eastern Europe on broad front to staging posts on Black and Caspian Seas; overland part of this movement probably largely in non-stop flight. Continues overland and enters Arabian Sea via Gulf of Oman, spreading west to Gulf of Aden by late October (but not entering Red Sea).