[order] Charadriiformes | [family] Scolopacidae | [latin] Tringa totanus | [UK] Redshank | [FR] Chevalier gambette | [DE] Rotschenkel | [ES] Archibebe Común | [IT] Pettegola | [NL] Tureluur

Tureluur determination

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Ashy brown upperparts, head and breast, streaked and spotted with black and dark brown. White secondaries conspicuous in flight. Differs from non-breeding T. erythropus by shorter, orange-red legs, shorter bill, indistinct supercilium and redder bill. Female often has paler upperparts than male, at least in race totanus. Non-breeding adult has gteyer upperparts, without streaks or spots, but some narrow white fringes, underparts paler, breast finely streaked. Races generally vary only in small details of plumage and size, robusta and ussuriensis more cinnamon.

Wide diversity of inland wetlands and coastal, including inland wet grasslands, grassy marshes and swampy heathlandsand coastal salt-marshes. After breeding, chiefly in coastal habitats including rocky, muddy and sandy shorelines, salt-marshes and open mudflats, salt-lakes, freshwater lagoons. Sometimes at inland waters or flooded grasslands.

Tringa totanus is a widespread breeder across much of Europe, which constitutes >50% of its global breeding range. Its European breeding population is large (>280,000 pairs), but underwent a moderate decline between 1970-1990. Although several populations—notably sizeable ones in Russia and Norway—were stable or increased during 1990-2000, the species continued to decline across much of its European range, and underwent a moderate decline (>10%) overall. Consequently, it is evaluated as Declining.
This wader is breeding in temperate, boreal and steppe regions of Eurasia, from the Iberian Peninsula to northern Norway and from the British Isles to China. The birds of southern Europe are largely sedentary. Those of the north are wintering from the North Sea to northern and north-western Africa, and those of Iceland winter mainly in the British Isles. Those of the British Isles are largely sedentary but some individuals disperse between Denmark and Portugal. In Greece birds from Eastern Europe are seen on their migration to north-eastern Africa. The total European population is estimated at 346000 breeding pairs, Russia not included. In most of the south-western part of its range this species seems to be declining, especially the inland popul

Insects, spiders and annelids. Non-breeders also consume mollusccs and crustaceans, particularly amphipod, on occasion, feeds on small fish or tadpoles. Like diet, feeding method varies seasonally. Uses typical brisk walk while picking, occasionally probes, jabs or sweeps bill ghrough water. Often wades, and occasionally swims. When feeding on fish, may forage socially in dense flock, often mixed with other tringines. Feeds diurnally and nocturnally. Mostly in small flocks, occasionally many 100's, sometimes singly.

This species has a large range, with an estimated global Extent of Occurrence of 1,000,000-10,000,000 km². It has a large global population estimated to be 1,000,000-2,500,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2002). Global population trends have not been quantified, but the species is not believed to approach the thresholds for the population decline criterion of the IUCN Red List (i.e. declining more than 30% in ten years or three generations). For these reasons, the species is evaluated as Least Concern. [conservation status from birdlife.org]

Egg laying from April to June. Monogamous pair bond. Moderate degree of natal pilopatry (consectutive generations breed in the area) in experienced and successful breeders, of site faithfulness and mate fidelity. Breeds solitary or in loose colonies. Nest typically at base of tall clump of grass, with leaves covering overhead. 4 eggs are laid, incubation 24 days, by both sexes. Chick has creamy or greyish buff upperparts with black-brown lines, buff suffused breast and whitish underparts. Both parents initially tend young, but later on often only male. Age of first breeding 1-2 years.

Mainly migratory, though some resident in maritime countries of western Europe. Though 3 subspecies occur in west Palearctic, broad intergradation zones between them make it impractical to attempt separation of populations on racial basis. In general, smallest birds (from northern Fenno-Scandia) winter furthest south (West Africa), while largest (Icelandic) winter on average furthest north (Iceland to North Sea); intermediate-sized birds of west-central Europe winter in intermediate latitudes centred on France, Iberia, and western Mediterranean. European migration mainly SW-SSW in autumn (reversed in spring); important concentrations along coasts, but also many cross overland (overflying large areas), and passage probably broad-front.