[order] Charadriiformes | [family] Charadriidae | [latin] Charadrius hiaticula | [UK] Ringed Plover | [FR] Pluvier grand-gravelot | [DE] Sandregenpfeifer | [ES] Chorlitejo Anillado | [IT] Corriere grosso | [NL] Bontbekplevier

Bontbekplevier determination

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More robust plover than C. dubius and very similar to C. semipalmatus, but lacks basal web between middle and inner toes, and has slightly broader breast band, larger white supercilium and clearer yellow eye-ring. Female has breast band and ear-coverts tinged brown on sides. Distinct non-breeding plumage absent in nominate race. Juvenile resembles pale adult with buffy fringes, but these soon lost.

Along coast on sand or shingle beaches, sandbanks and mudflats, estuaries and, occasionally, rivers, lakes, lagoons, short grassland, flooded fields and some artificial habitats also occurs on tundra. Prefers moist substrates, but rarely in shallow water. Generally, at least during migration, race tundrae occurs on softer sediments than hiaticula. Roosts communally, close to feeding area, on exposed, bare ground, or that with short vegetation, usually on coast, above high water mark.

Charadrius hiaticula is a widespread breeder in northern Europe (occurring more patchily further south), which probably constitutes >50% of its global breeding range. Its European breeding population is large (>120,000 pairs), and was stable between 1970-1990. Although there were declines in a few countries during 1990-2000, the species was stable or increased across most of its European range (the trend in Iceland was unknown), and probably underwent only a small decline overall.

Moluscs, isopods, polychaete worms, crustaceans, amphipods and various insects. Sometimes uses foot-trembling. Typically in small flocks of up to 50. Forages by day and night, often on tidal flats.

This species has a large range, with an estimated global Extent of Occurrence of 1,000,000-10,000,000 kmē. It has a large global population estimated to be 410,000-540,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2002). Global population trends have not been quantified, but the species is not believed to approach the thresholds for the population decline criterion of the IUCN Red List (i.e. declining more than 30% in ten years or three generations). For these reasons, the species is evaluated as Least Concern. [conservation status from birdlife.org]

April around North Sea, June-July in Iceland, June in Nortern Eurasia. Seasonally monogamous.pair-bond occasionally maintained over successive years. Solitary or in loose neighbourhood groups, with nests 10-100 m apart. Nest is shallow scrape, lined with pebbles, debris and pieces of vegetation. 3-4 eggs, incubation lasts 21-27 days, by both parents. Chick pale buffy grey finely mottled with dusky and some cinnamon-buff above, white underparts, with blackish bordering band. Age of first breeding 1 year.

Migratory. Northernmost birds migrate furthest S, while southernmost breeders are also northernmost winterers; some W European birds may remain close to their breeding grounds. Mainly winters in Africa, but also in Mediterranean Basin, Iberian Peninsula, Red Sea and Persian Gulf. Small numbers migrate through, or possibly winter in, China and Japan. Nearctic breeders all migrate across N Atlantic, in a single flight or via Greenland and Iceland, probably to winter in W Africa. Race tundrae migrates via Europe, but also crosses Eurasian and African landmasses in broad front, towards E & S Africa; possibly crosses Sahara. In Egypt arrives early Sept and departs late May, in South Africa Sept-Oct and Apr, in Morocco Aug-Nov and Apr-Jun. High degree of site fidelity during migration and wintering.