[order] Charadriiformes | [family] Scolopacidae | [latin] Numenius phaeopus | [UK] Whimbrel | [FR] Courlis corlieu | [DE] Regenbrachvogel | [ES] Zarapito Trinador | [IT] Chiurlo piccolo | [NL] Regenwulp

Regenwulp determination

copyright: youtube

A large, relatively short-legged shorebird with a long down-curved bill, striped head, brown speckled upperparts and light underparts with streaking on the neck and upper breast. The underwings are light. Sexes similar in plumage, but female larger on average. Similar to adult, but back with light spots, crown stripe less distinct, breast more buff, and with finer streaking on neck and chest.

Breeds in various tundra habitat, from wet lowlands to dry heath or wet taiga bogs that have scattered, stunted black spruce. In migration, frequents various coastal and inland habitats, including fields and beaches. Winters in tidal flats and shorelines, occasionally visiting inland habitats.

This wader inhabits boreal and arctic regions of Eurasia and North America. The populations of northern Europe, from Finland to the Urals, are wintering in West Africa. They are totalling 200000-400000 breeding pairs, and are increasing

It fattens up during the fall migration at coastal and terrestrial habitats such as heaths and oyster banks. During the winter, it forages in tidal flats, mangroves and a variety of other coastal habitats. This curlew has a broad diet but its main food is marine invertebrates. Crabs are a favorite prey of wintering birds. In the fall, when staging for migration in the Canadian Maritimes and coastal Maine, Whimbrels eat berries and even flowers during breeding season. Berries are pulled off a branch with the tips of the bill. The bird then flips its head back and swallows. Insects are eaten in the same way.

This species has a large range, with an estimated global Extent of Occurrence of 100,000-1,000,000 kmē. It has a large global population estimated to be 1,000,000-2,100,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2002). Global population trends have not been quantified, but the species is not believed to approach the thresholds for the population decline criterion of the IUCN Red List (i.e. declining more than 30% in ten years or three generations). For these reasons, the species is evaluated as Least Concern. [conservation status from birdlife.org]

Breeds in various tundra habitat, from wet lowlands to dry heath. In migration, frequents various coastal and inland habitats, including fields and beaches. Breeding occurs May through July. Females usually lay four eggs in a depression they scraped out of the ground and lined with leaves. After 22-28 days of incubation, the eggs hatch. Young take about another month to fly.

Migratory. West Palearctic population winters mainly in Afrotropical region and on islands and coasts of western Indian Ocean. Very few winter in Europe (irregularly north to Denmark), and only sparingly from North Africa to Persian Gulf. Migrants not scarce in European coastal areas, especially around British Isles, but great majority probably pass overland on broad fronts, overflying large regions between relatively few staging areas. Especially important numbers halt in Hungary and interior of Low Countries (mainly Netherlands) in spring, but rather few in autumn when (so far as known) European passage (chiefly August-September) is without major roosting or feeding concentrations. Many summer in African wintering areas; probably all 1-year-olds do so. Otherwise, spring departure from Afrotropics begins in March, including long Saharan crossings. Early birds reach Europe in late March, though main passage in second half April and first 10 days of May; breeding grounds reoccupied in May, or June in northern Russia.